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Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?

Find out more in this web based movie.


Meniscal Tears

Meniscal tears are one of the most frequently reported injuries to the knee joint. The meniscus is a C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure in the knee incompletely covering the surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur.

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Ligament Injuries

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time more susceptible to various kinds of injuries.

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Knee Pain

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap. Several ligaments and muscles attach to the bones of the knee joint to maintain normal motion of the joint.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of the major ligaments of the knee that is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). It prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur. Together with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) it provides rotational stability to the knee.

For more information about Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears, click on below tabs.

Patellar Instability

Patellar (knee cap) instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations (subluxations). Patella is the small piece of bone in front of the knee that slides up and down the femoral groove (groove in the femur bone) during bending and stretching movements.

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Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to look into the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and a majority of the patient’s discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

For more information about Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction, click on below tabs.

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

For more information about ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon, click on below tabs.

Meniscal Repair

Meniscus is the C-shaped two pieces of cartilage located between thighbone and shin bone that act as shock absorbers and cushion the joints. Meniscus distributes the body weight uniformly across the joint and avoids the pressure on any one part of the joint and development of arthritis.

For more information about Meniscal Repair, click on below tabs.


Microfracture is a surgical procedure used for cartilage restoration. Cartilage restoration is a surgical procedure where orthopedic surgeons stimulate the growth of new cartilage tissue and restore the normal function.

For more information about Microfracture, click on below tabs.

Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.


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